Stage 1
January 15 - May 15 2014

 

Main objective
The main objective of the project is the development of new multifunctional textile structures, including biologically active compounds extracted from plants, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases such as Borreliosis and other bacterial diseases spread by ticks.

Stage 1 objectives – 2014
The main objective of stage 1 was the preparation of scientific studies on both main categories of plants with potential repellent properties and ticks repellent materials. To achieve the overall aim of the stage, the aimed specific objectives were:
- Studies on the selection of plants that contain natural compounds effective against Ixodes ticks species.
- Studies on identification of active natural compounds.
- Studies on the general specifications of tick repellent textiles.
- Project coordination, technical administrative and financial management.
- Dissemination of results.

Tickotex Kick-off meeting
Kick-off meeting was held on 4-29-2014 in the National Reseach and Development Institute for Textile and Leatheer (I.N.C.D.T.P.) in Bucharest. At the meeting, attended: from Turkey, Kivanc Tekstil and Ozyegin University; from Romania: Hofigal, INCDTP and Conflux; from Czech Republic: Inotex. The meeting covered the progress made so far by each partner and work plan for months 5-12 of 20014.

Actual problem
Ticks are parasitic insects (ectoparasites)carrier vectors of Lyme disease, Tularemia, Babesiosis, Colorado fever and even particular types of meningoencephalitis. Ticks are included in Arachnida class, Acari subclass, Parasitiformes order, Ixodida suborder. So far, there were identified and classified 850 species of ticks. Parasitic species most commonly affecting people is Ixodes ricinus, known as the sheep or deer tick. They are often found in forests, grasslands, swamps, urban parks and gardens. Ticks can transmit bacterial diseases, the most common being Lyme disease thayt can lead to serious complications such as viral meningitis, facial palsy, arthritis and nerve damage. Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium form spirochetesclass, Borrelia burgdorferi.

  
Figura 1. Life cycle of ticks
(Source: http://medicologia.info)

In Romania, in year 2010 there was a total of 566 reported cases of Lyme disease, their number increasing in 2011, when they entered the final surveillance and were classified 861 cases of Lyme disease, with 52% more compared to precedent year. In 2012 they entered the final surveillance and were classified 1762 cases of Lyme disease, 2 times more than the previous year. In 2013 they entered the final surveillance and were classified 1052 cases of Lyme disease, representing 60% of the previous year.

Screening of plants with repellent potential and active agents
Chemicals obtained from plants that kill or repell ticks are extracted from different parts of the plant, including flowers, fruits, leaves and wood parts. The use of tick repellent plants against ticks or essential oils on hosts and their integration with other ticks control measures in hosts outdoor environment and on hosts can provide practical and less expensive ways to control not only ticks specific to farm animals, but arthropod vectors. Plants screening was done on both plant compounds with general insecticidal properties  and on tick repellent compounds. Among these compounds are:
- 2-Undecanone (nonyl-methyl-ketone or IBI-246) is a herbal oil repellent,  with repellency against mosquitoes and ticks.


Figure 2. Chemical structure of 2-Undecanone

- Lemon eucalyptus or lemon flavored resin are common names for Corymbia citriodora (Mirtacee family). The essential oil extracted from freshly harvested or partially dried leaves, is widely used in the perfume industry and for the production of synthetic menthol citronella oil, the main compound of the oil.


Figure 3. p-Mentan-3,8-diol (2-(1-Hidroxi-1-methylethyl)-5-metilciclohexanol)

- Lavender oil is a complex of several chemical compounds. Its main compounds are lavandulol, 1,8-cineole, lavandulil acetate, linalyl acetate (3,7-dimethyl-1, 6-octadien-3-yl acetate), linalool (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol) and camphor.


Figure 4. Chemical structure of linalool

 - Geranium essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniacee family) herbaceous parts. Geranium oil contains: 3-hexenol, menthone, isomenthone, linalool, -bourbonena, citronellil format -cariofilene, geranyl format, citronellol, geranyl acetate, butyrate citronellil, geraniol and 2-phenyl-ethyl-alcohol.
- Neem is the popular name for Azadirachta indica (syn. Antelaea azadirachta, Melia Azadirachta) belonging to the meliacee family. The essential oil is obtained from seeds of neem tree and is known for its insecticidal and repellent properties.


Figure 5. Chemical strucutre of Azadirachtin (Neem constituent)

- Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a volatile derivative of jasmonic acid involved in plant-plant communication and defense of plants against herbivores attack. MJ biosynthesis begins with linoleic acid and contains a number of stages involving lipo-oxidation, cyclization and oxidation.


Figure 6. Linoleic acid structure

- Volatile oil of Hyptis suaveolens exhibits insect repellent properties, its constituents being 1,8-cineole, fenchone and -pinene.
- Salvadore persica leaf extract shows strong antibacterial effect. The strain contains N-benzyl-2-phenyl-acetamide, a substance which proved to have a moderate antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli and a significant inhibitory effect on human collagen. The volatile oil extracted from the leaves of S. persica contains: benzyl nitrile, eugenol, thymol, izotimol, eucalyptol, izoterpinolene and -cariofilene.

General characteristics of textiles with repellent action
1. The necessity of creating textiles with repellent properties is determined by the presence of increasingly large numbers of ticks that create an increasingly number of difficult to treat disease cases.
2. Textiles with repellent activity can be used as barriers to eliminate or reduce the risk of infections caused by ticks, especially in forest areas, agriculture and tourism.
3. The manufacturing of tepellent textiles is based on recommendations of related organizations and ISO, EN and ASTM standards.
4. Textile materials with repellent activity should provide comfort to the wearrers: provide body optimum temperature of 37 ° C ± 0.5 ° C, high permeability to air and water vapors (sweat).
5. Choosing the right fabric to achieve protective effects is made based on final uses (sports clothing / leisure, equipment foresters, etc.) and the critical features necessary for safety, comfort and performance. It must be taken into account characteristic properties such as compactness, drapery, abrasion resistance, air permeability, breathability, water resistance, tear strength and elongation, elasticity properties and flexibility to comply to body changes, hydrophobicity and dirt rejecting, a pleasant scent and improved aesthetic characteristics, ease of maintenance, an acceptable level of quality, lack of toxic compounds and allergens, proper insulated environment to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia. In addition, the materials must have a good price:benefit raport, although before cost factors, securty criteria for the population should come in first. A cheap product that does not offer security conditions can not be considered effective in terms of cost as this involves using an additional volume of products needed to replace the defective or have reduced performance.