Statge 2
May 16 - December 15 2014


Main objective
The main objective of the project is the development of new multifunctional textile structures, including biologically active compounds extracted from plants, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases such as Borreliosis and other bacterial diseases spread by ticks.

Stage 2 objectives – 2014
The main objective of stage 2 was the preliminary preparation and characterization of natural products obtained from autochthonous plants. The specific objectives within the stage, were:
- Laboratory experiments  for the preparation of active natural compounds;
- Evaluation of antifungal efficiency of natural compounds;
- Optimization of extraction technologies based on reports from partners;
- Selection of woven and knitted structures and properties dedicated to specialized clothes;
- Technical specifications of properties dedicated to specialized clothing;
- Project coordination, technical, administrative and financial management;
- Results dissemination;
- Financial audit.

Stage 2 M8 meeting
Between 9/21-24/2014, Tickotex project M8 meeting was held. The meeting took place in Prague, Czech Republic, Conference Room of Galerie Royale Hotel. At the meeting, the following partners attended: Turkey: Kivanc Tekstil, Ozyegin University; Czech Republic: Inotex, Prague National Health Institute; Romania: Hofigal, Conflux, Proxima-Moda, I.N.C.D.T.P. The meeting covered the progress made so far by each partner, and work plan for months 1-5, for year 2015, when the next project meeting was scheduled.

Selection of volatile oils
The extraction procedure utilized by Hofigal is that with steam distillation. The majority of volatile oils, obtained on an industrial scale, are obtained by steam distillation. This property of volatile oils is known and applied for millennia. The physical phenomena that occurs is based on the law of adding of activities of pressure vapor of components of a mixture, according to which the mixture boils at the temperature at which the sum of partial pressures of the components  is equal with atmospheric pressure.

In this stage it was establish the selection, characterization and preparation of technical specification of the following essential oils:
1. (IUNIPERI AETHEROLEUM - juniper oil): obtained by steam distillation of mature fruits (berries), unfermented of Juniperus communis,  Cupressaceae family and addition of antioxidant.
2. (Eucalypti AETHEROLEUM - eucalyptus oil): obtained by steam distillation from fresh leaves of terminal branches of Eucalyptus globulus Labill and/or Eucalyptus polybracteea R.T.Baker and/or Eucalyptus smithii R.T.Baker.
3. (Lavandulae OFICINALIS AETHEROLEUM - lavender oil): obtained by steam distillation from floral stems of Lavandulae  angustifolia  sin. Lavandulae officinalis L.
4. (Rosmarini AETHEROLEUM - rosemary oil): obtained by steam distillation from flowering aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L, familiy Lamiaceae vegetal product.
All selected oils were characterized for physical-chemical and microbiological properties: appearance, color, smell, taste, chromatographic profile (content of ά- pinene, sabinene, β – pinene, β -  mircene, ά - felandren, limonen, terpinen-4-ol, bornil acetate, -  β- cariofilene), relative density, optical rotation, refractive index, peroxide index, content of fatty oils and raisins, microbiological contamination with bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, Escherichia coli etc.).

For next stage, the use of orange essential oil will be pursued, due to literature data indicating high content of limonen, which is a content with high repellent properties.

Selection of textile substrates
The structure of textiles is essential to achieve a high level of protection and to create a state of comfort. The selection of textile materials that will be the base for treatment will be carried out based on end use and of critical characteristics needed for protection, comfort and performance. Characteristic properties and performances will be targeted, such as compactness of materials, drapery, abrasion resistance, air permeability, water and tear resistance, breakout force and elongation, hidrophobicity, stain repellency, high degree of protection mixed with ease of move and ergonomic properties, adequate comfort. The selection of textile structures dedicated to specialized clothing will be carried out from the following types:
- natural: cotton, wool, hemp, linen;
- synthetic: polyester, polyamide, silk, acrylic materials, acetate materials;
- combinations: blends of natural and synthetic fibers;
The performances of repellent textile materials depend on many factors, such as:
- fiber type and ratio of used fiber composition;
- structure of textile material;
- characteristic parameters: mass, thickness, moisture absorbing capacity,  hydrophilic/hydrophobic degree, tensile strength, abbrasion, air/water permeability, dimensional modification, color;
- presence of finishing agents (binders);
- manufacturing method;
- use conditions (wet/dry cleaning and repeated washing);
- using of different washing agents.

INCDTP used 3 types of textile materials for antimicrobial efficacy testing:
- textile materials of 100% cotton fiber composition;
- textile materials of 100% polyester fiber composition;
- textile materials of 56% cotton/44% polyester fiber composition.

Qualitative and quantitative antifungal tests were conducted on textile materials treated with plants extracts, along with untreated (control), on strains of Candida albicans, Trichophyton interdigitale and Trycophyton interdigitale, according to ISO 20743:2007 (table 1-3).

Table 1. Percentage reduction degrees on Candida albicans

Table 2. Percentage reduction degrees on Trichophyton interdigitale

Table 3. Percentage reduction degrees on Epidermophyton floccosum

Future activities
1.Regarding active biocides regulatory compliance, the following essential oils were selected for experimental tests: eucalyptus oil, lavender oil, orange oil. All natural oils will be obtained and provided by Hofigal;
2. For anti-ticks efficiency testing of treated textiles, testing method evaluation is necessary, in order to obtain concludent results;
3.The composition of the materials to be used for first studies regarding microcapsules deposition will be of 100% cotton and 100% polyester, these being pre-treated, without whitening (optical or chemical), without dyeing and implementation of finishing stages. Based on results and technological advance in the project, final articles fibrous composition will be established;
4. Kivanc Tekstil will provide cotton and polyester woven materials to partners responsible with next stages treatment, serving as report standards for future tests. Knitva will provide 100% cotton knitted materials, for experiments run in parallel;
5. The most important parameter for multifunctional textiles is represented by treatment durability to repeated washings and prolonged storage. This parameter will be tested to compare the repellent effect for different batches of capsules containing the active agent with fast release of repellent chemical, and long term effect;
6. Scaling of process parameters for capsules manufacturing for inducting a high degree of thermic resistance, that will be involved in textile finishing technological steps. In this stage, shortgage of exposure time of textile substrates to high temperatures will be taken into consideration and the use of small volumes of water during application;
7. In stage number 3 (2015), concentrations of active substances that will be used in encapsulation experiments will be analyzed by chromatographic techniques: GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) and HPLC (High Pressure/Performance Liquid Chromatography);
8. Optimal tick repellent doses will be document, according to literature, along with skin toxicity skin limits for the wearer. Hofigal will collaborate with INCDTP and Ozyegin University to establish the specific volumes of oil that will be used in encapsulation and materials deposition experiments;
9. Hofigal will provide samples of the the selected oils (eucalyptus, lavender, orange) to Inotex, for repellency tests at Prague National Health Institute. Also, dosage for each compound will be taken into consideration, for obtaining similar repellency rates for all tested extracts;
10. Inotex will prepare textile materials, previously treated by Corona, followed by parallel preparation with Knitva, and treatment with capsules provided by Ozyegin University. Furthermore, these materials will be subjected to tick repellency tests, at Prague National Health Institute, and antimicrobial tests, carried out by INCDTP.
Next meeting schedule was discussed, that will be organized in Istanbul, by Ozyegin University, in Arpil-May 2015.

Results dissemination
Between October 15-18 2014, a poster of project presentation was displayed at Romanian Research Saloon and Innovations and Inventions Saloon - INVENTIKA.